Gigapixel Photography and Cameras tips

The advent of digital technology has caused a revolution in the way we think of photography. Before this revolution, most of us thought of photography in terms of images captured on film that subsequently would be transformed into prints by way of photographic enlargement. However, rapid proliferation of digital cameras, scanners and printers has changed this perception. Even the prevailing jargon has changed. Where previously an image was described in terms of granularity and acutance, it now more often is defined by pixel count and dpi. Meanwhile, those of us who have spent much of our lives in the pursuit of film-based photography keep asking ourselves whether such photography can survive; and, if it does, what role will it play? When we debated this question in late 2000, it seemed reasonable to assume that digital cameras with resolutions in the 10-megapixel regime would become commonplace within a few years. This would put them in head-to-head competition with 35-mm film-based technology; perhaps even displacing that technology entirely within a decade or so. On the other hand, it seemed unlikely that digital cameras with resolutions much in excess of 10 megapixels would appear in the near term. Especially unlikely would be the emergence of digital cameras with resolutions approaching 100 megapixels. As a consequence, we felt it likely that film-based large-format photography would for the time being remain unchallenged. With this in mind, we have concentrated recent endeavors upon the application of ultra-high-resolution techniques to the field of large-format photography.

In defining the term “ultra-high-resolution,” we have analyzed each factor that bears upon the image forming process; especially taking into account the effects of atmospheric blurring, lens aberrations and film granularity. When it became apparent that the sought-for resolution could not be preserved via conventional photographic enlargement, the scope of our analysis was widened to include film scanners and digital printers. We concluded that, consistent with the largest practicable roll film format (9″x18″), we could expect to achieve a resolution equivalent to 1000 megapixels. Hence, came the name Gigapxl&trade. With recent developments, this figure approaches 4000 megapixels, but the name remains unchanged.

Subject to the limitations of human vision, a minimum of 8 square inches of print area is needed to convey the information contained in a 1-megapixel image. When scaled to 1000 megapixels, the minimum print area becomes 50 square feet. For prints made from our 9″x18″ format, this equates to a print which has a height of 5 feet and a width of 10 feet. Likewise, a 4000-megapixel print has dimensions of 10 feet by 20 feet. Meanwhile, close-up sharpness matches that of a 4″x6″ print from a 3-megapixel digital camera. The information content of a Gigapxl™ print can be compared to that available in a real-world scene which is viewed through a pair of binoculars. In the case of 1000-megapixel images, one would require 6X binoculars; twice this power at 4000 megapixels.

The first Gigapxl™ cameras were completed and ready for test in February 2001; the first color landscapes being produced a month later. Early images had a pixel count of 260 megapixels (20-micron scan resolution) and were printed on photographic paper. Within a year, however, the count had increased to 670 megapixels (12.5-micron scan resolution). At which level, although substantially higher resolution was being achieved on film, the pixel count temporarily became constrained by issues related to scanner resolution and the file size limits of Adobe Photoshop. Meanwhile, with second-generation cameras (combining superior lenses and a variety of focal lengths) nearing completion, we switched from photographic printing to pigment ink printing. Working closely with Adobe, issues related to Photoshop file size have slowly but surely been resolved. Meantime, collaboration with Leica Geosystems (manufacturer of the DSW500 digital scanner) is about to yield scans with a resolution of 6 microns. At which time, numerous existing negatives will be redigitized at 2,900 megapixels. By year end (2004), we expect to push scan resolution to the 5-4 micron range; the corresponding pixel counts being 4,180 megapixels and 6,530 megapixels, respectively.

Extensive viewer response to Gigapxl imagery was first obtained in 2003. In March of that year, a 21-foot panorama of San Francisco was exhibited at The Albuquerque Museum. Four months later, a similar image was exhibited at the Palace of Fine Arts/Exploratorium in San Francisco. Aside from general expressions of awe, feedback mainly has centered around the extent to which ultra-high-resolution adds a humanizing touch to subject material which otherwise tends to be dominated by its monumental scale. Especially it has been noted that the ability to capture the minutiae of everyday life provides a level of interest not found in conventional cityscapes.

While technical issues which relate to scanning and digital processing continue to be addressed, current efforts are focused upon the expansion of an image portfolio. At this point, we have stockpiled some 500 images; a fair proportion of which already have been scanned at the 10-micron level. Subject material for the most part typifies the American landscape. To date, photographic forays have been made to all Provinces and States, with the exception of Hawaii. Notable urban subjects include cities such as San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego, Calgary, Colorado Springs, Dallas, Seattle, and Denver. Work in the National and State Parks/Monuments extends to Yosemite, Point Lobos, Mount Tamalpais, Mono Lake, Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Grand Canyon, White Sands, Mesa Verde, Canyon de Chelly, the Grand Tetons, Yellowstone, Devil’s Tower, Mount Rushmore, the Badlands of South Dakota, Denali, Jasper, and Banff.

In terms of the future, we have been much encouraged by the diversity of applications which continue to emerge. One of particular appeal relates to the documentation of cultural and archaeological sites which cannot be preserved and which inevitably will deteriorate with the passage of time. Many thousands of these sites are present around the world. Prime examples include entire cities such as Rome, Italy. In this instance, limestone structures which have stood for thousands of years have become the victims of acid rain. Stonemason’s chisel marks, until recently clear to see, have all but vanished. Only through a massive program of ultra-high-resolution documentary photography can such details be preserved for enjoyment and study by future generations.

If you do you want to learn more about mastering Gigapixel photography or to get tips from expert photographers, check out at 20+ Gigapixel photography Inspirations, Camera Models and Tips.

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16 useful Mac cheat Sheets

Cheat sheet is a concise set of notes used for quick reference. Cheat sheets will contain most of the shortcuts needed to program faster. And it is meant for newbie users who can’t remember the shortcuts or commands.

In this article , I have collected some of the useful cheat sheets available for Mac OS. These cheat sheets will definitely help you either if you are new to Mac or if you are shifting from Windows to Mac. These cheat Sheets also covers some of the useful keyboard shortcuts and things which you will be using in Mac daily.

You may think that one cheat sheet is just enough , but I feel that some cheat sheets may miss some points so its better to look through all of them and then choose the top 2-5 you think will help you the most. After that you can Print them out and hang them on the wall around your desk for quick reference.

To download the MAC cheatsheets just check and visit the page below 16 useful Mac cheat Sheets.

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Digital Infrared Photography Tips at

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Digital Infrared Photography Training

It seems to be that the larger the location that you live in the more the law-breaking degree increases. With the function of infrared digital photography you have the fortune of catching some extraordinary pictures of law breakers being arrested and there isn’t any larger comforting feeling than knowing you definitely made a little contribution in helping the law enforcement capture some of the law breaking members of our society.

To take a couple of them off the streets at a time makes sure that our lives and the lives of our youngsters will be in less danger. Whether you are using daytime infrared digital photography or night infrared digital photography the right lens and all the right factors will in truth give you the opportunity to create just the right digital image you predict to come up with. You need to remember with digital infrared photography that there are not many matters you want to take in consideration in getting that great image. Basically, when you see a blue t-shirt, it is due to the fact that shirt is absorbing all the colors in the visible range, but blue.

What is so engaging about infrared light is reliant on just purple ( which is usually converted to black ) and white. As an example, foliage reflects all infrared light, so it ends up looking white. If you were to have a look at a tree and it’s green leaves with an infrared camera, the leaves would look white, the trunk would look black, the grass would be white and a park bench would be black.

How do you get infrared image on a digital camera? Well, when you a fully exposed piece of film which has been developed, it’ll only permit infrared light to pass through it. It may absolutely screw up your lens and create some important electronics going wrong if you’re slipshod when selecting to do so. And remember, the most vital thing about infrared lens is to never under whatever circumstances look through this infrared lens with your own eyes.This will cost you your eye sight.

Never jump the gun too fast on snapping until you have got your facts straight with the type of results that you are in hope of with your digital photography shoots. Think about what kind of filter you’ll be utilizing, make absolutely certain that each of your settings are set at their acceptable availability for the precisest detailed appearance. The direction the objects in your photographs could be moving will give you an idea on what sort of angle you should be snapping from. Naturally the poorer your lighting then the longer it’ll take for your pictures to show. They call for a longer period if the light isn’t powerful enough to make the image its correct imaging appearance. The correct lighting is real vital in your digital photography success.

Exactly like any of the pros out there you also have to apply your digital photography abilities to their highest degree of accuracy. Try and be actually creative with your digital infrared photography capabilities in snapping the objects you need to form on print.

If you do you want to learn more about mastering Infrared digital photography or to get tips from the Infrared digital photography tutorial, check out at 45+ Surreal Infrared photography Inspirations and Tips.

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